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Sexting the sharing of self-produced sexual material through electronic means is one of many behaviours adolescents adopt to express and explore their sexuality. Sexting often le to positive outcomes, but it can also have negative repercussions Englander, that pose new challenges for parents and educational professionals McEachern et al. Risks may increase given the peer pressure to engage in sexting, the non-consensual dissemination of sexting messages, and the presence of associated risks such as cyber bullying Medrano et al.
Thus, an educational response to the myriad of ways this phenomenon can be expressed is recommended. Forwarding is a behaviour that must clearly be avoided, and strategies for tackling it need to be taught Van-Ouytsel et al. However, we also need to know how best to act when this kind of content is received Mitchell et al. Within the current context, gay snapchat sext studies have been published in Spain which analyse sexting prevalence by differentiating between the different types of sexting behaviours.
However, other sexting behaviours may entail different consequences for those involved and need to be addressed in education. As such, it is important to disentangle the diversity behind sexting behaviours, going beyond sending and receiving by also including the forwarding of personally received sexts and the further transmission of a third-party sexting message.
A first broad differentiation of sexting behaviours can be made between active sexting sending or forwarding and passive sexting receiving directly from the creator or receiving content forwarded by third-parties Barrense-Dias et al.
A further distinction can be made between primary sexting sending and receivingwhere sexual content is normally exchanged consensually amongst peers and not sent to anyone else except for group pressure, sextortion In this context, we find restrictive definitions that limit sexting to sending sexually explicit images Marume et al.
However, studies that adopt a comprehensive definition sometimes fail to differentiate between separate behaviours which are included Beckmeyer et al. Consequently, in the present study, sexting is defined as sending, receiving and forwarding sexually suggestive and explicit images, videos or text messages via the internet and electronic media, and each sexting behaviour is analysed independently.
Sexting prevalence rates among adolescents vary according to the criteria used to define the phenomenon, the age of the participants, the time range and measuring instrument, among others Barrense-Dias et al.
However, no studies from Spain featured among this literature. Specifically, in Spain, few articles have analysed sexting prevalence, differentiating between specific types of sexting behaviours. Villacampa found that 7. Moreover, Garmendia et al.
The ly mentioned meta-analysis found that sexting participation rates increase with age Madigan et al. Despite the limited of studies analysing prevalence in adolescents based on sexual orientation, there do seem to be ificant differences. Non-heterosexual adolescents appear more involved in sending and receiving sexual content than their heterosexual peers, though not in non-consensual forms of sexting Van-Ouytsel et al.
Regarding gender, a range of have been reported. Other studies, however, found no gender differences in the rates of sending and receiving sexual messages or images Beckmeyer et al. Specifically, in Spain, few studies were identified as analysing different sexting behaviours based on these sociodemographic variables. Garmendia et al. However, although it is true that the exchange and visualisation of sexual content is becoming increasingly more normalised among adolescents and young people, that is, they perceive sexting as a mainstream, standard behaviour Stanley et al.
Gay snapchat sext generally believe that the messages shared in their environment i. Yet the majority, regardless of their gender or age, do not participate in sexting, meaning that it does not fall under a normative aspect of adolescent flirting and relationships Wood gay snapchat sext al. Despite the real concern about preventing the negative consequences of sexting, little research has been published to date in Spain that analyses sexting prevalence by differentiating between the different types of behaviours.
Furthermore, sexting is a phenomenon closely linked to social norms, so it is important to address both sexting normalisation and gender differences Symons et al. This would allow us to gain a better understanding of its complexity and effectively analyse this phenomenon, thus laying the groundwork for educational efforts. The sample comprised 3, adolescents The first two questions refer to self-produced sexual content, while the other two questions refer to sexual content of other adolescents.
Specifically, the normalisation dimension comprised five items about the perception of sexting as a normal and usual gay snapchat sext among peers e. Willingness to engage in sexting was measured using six items that indicate a predisposition to exhibit such behaviours e. Two variables resulted from the average of each dimension. Each variable was dichotomised. Telegram and Tinder were removed given their low use. Regarding sexual orientation, participants had to select the option which most coincided with how they felt in erotic-affective relationships heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual.
Because of the relatively low prevalence of some sexual orientationthe sexual orientation variable was dichotomised. Those schools expressing interest were included in the study. Parental written informed consent was obtained via acceptance of project participation headed by the respective School Board. Once permissions were obtained, data were collected. Paper-and-pencil questionnaires were administered during class time by either researchers or teachers who had received prior training. During questionnaire administration, respondents were clearly informed about the anonymous and voluntary nature of participation, the confidential treatment of data, and the importance of responding truthfully.
Data were analysed using SPSS Basic descriptive analyses were performed, including Cronbach's alphas gay snapchat sext frequencies. All variables were entered into the model simultaneously. The analysis was also stratified by gender. The most frequent sexting behaviours are receiving Descriptive statistics are shown in Table 2.
The regression models were ificant. For boys, these were willingness to sext OR: 6. For boys, these were using Instagram OR: 3. For boys, these were sexting normalisation OR: 2. This study advances knowledge of sexting, going beyond sending and receiving to also encompass the forwarding of a personally received sext and the further transmission of a third-party sexting message. According to research Barrense-Dias et al. Specifically, more than 2 in 25 teenagers send or forward sexual content, while more than 1 in 5 receive it directly from the creator, and more than 1 in 4 teenagers receive it via an intermediary.
Although the prevalence rates in this study for sending, receiving and third-party forwarding are slightly lower than the average observed in Madigan et al. In addition, typically non-consensual sexting behaviours are more frequent than typically consensual ones. This coincides with Villacampa's study in which the third-party forwarding of sexual content was more frequent than its production. Although boys engage more than girls across all sexting behaviours, sending is the only behaviour not predicted by gender.
These coincide with studies that claim no gender differences in sending Beckmeyer et al. From this perspective, Symons et al. This suggests a conflict between the expectations that girls hold about themselves and their actual behaviour. However, gender differences in engagement are observed in all other behaviours Madigan et al. This may be because boys are more likely to practice sexting in ways that are deemed riskier for their partner than for themselves, that is, receiving and forwarding to third parties.
This supports literature that claims sexting is not a gender neutral activity Wood et al. Age is related to all sexting behaviours, except sending in boys. In the case of third-party forwarding of sexts, this could also mean a greater risk of sexting messages being disseminated non-consensually over the course of adolescence Ringrose et al. Thus, educational efforts should be made to promote sexual education early on Ahern et al.
Although sexting is less frequent among very young or preteen boys and girls, negative outcomes are more common in these groups Englander, Sexual orientation predicts involvement in sending sexts. Specifically, adolescents who identify as non-heterosexual participate more in this practice, but not in other behaviours. However, the aforementioned groups are not ificantly more likely to participate in other sexting behaviours more closely related to non-consensual forms Van-Ouytsel et al.
The higher prevalence of sending sexts could potentially be explained by the fact that the digital environment allows individuals, especially young people from sexual minorities, to connect with potential dating partners without fear of negative social repercussions Brown et al.
In Beckmeyer et al.
Thus, sexting can not only lead to negative outcomes, such as the future dissemination of non-consensual sexual content, but it can also have a positive impact, such as strengthening a romantic relationship Englander, Incorporating sexting into sex education programmes is a key part of gay snapchat sext this phenomenon Van-Ouytsel et al. Regarding the use of SNS, Snapchat predicts the sending and receiving of sexts; Facebook predicts third-party forwarding; and Instagram predicts third-party forwarding, receiving and receiving via an intermediary.
Snapchat seems to be the most commonly used SNS for sending and receiving sexts, while Instagram is used for the other sexting behaviours more strongly. However, this varies by gender. In girls, sending is not predicted by any SNS, whereas other behaviours are predicted by the use of Instagram. In boys, sending and both types of receiving are predicted by the use of Snapchat, while Instagram is used for third-party forwarding and receiving via an intermediary and Facebook also for receiving. In contrast, Facebook and Instagram are more frequently used for generally non-consensual forms of sexting.
Specifically, the third-party forwarding of sexual content can be classed as a form of sexting with the highest risk because the content can be sp easily and reach the target audience without consent Madigan et al.
When it comes to preventive actions, attention needs to be paid to these platforms as channels for disseminating non-consensual sexual content. Developing a safe and healthy use of the Internet and social networks is essential, highlighting, for example, the control of personal information online Patrick et al. Lastly, sexting normalisation increases the likelihood of practicing all sexting behaviours, except sending. Furthermore, in boys, it does not predict third-party forwarding. This study reports considerable prevalence rates across the different sexting behaviours; however, they do not allow them to be considered as normative practices Van-Ouytsel et al.
Although sexting is becoming increasingly more normalised Stanley et al. Specifically, the willingness to engage in sexting is what best predicts sexting participation in most cases, except when it comes to receiving via an intermediary in both boys and girls. It may be that sexting normalisation is indirectly driving an increased predisposition to participate in sexting, with the latter increasing the prevalence of sending, receiving and forwarding sexual content.
In fact, the subjective norm is the gay snapchat sext predictor of young people's sexual intention Walrave et al. Although the sharing of sexual content is far from normative behaviour, it is sufficiently widespread and standardised, meaning that education and prevention initiatives to combat its potential consequences, especially non-consensual sharing, are strongly justified Mitchell et al.
However, messages based on fear are not effective Stanley et al. A better approach may be to focus on social norming approaches, acknowledging that not all adolescents sext and, excluding non-consensual sexting behaviours, everyone is free to decide whether to engage or not Englander, Some limitations should be borne in mind when interpreting the.
It is necessary to consider the use of convenience sampling and the cross-sectional nature of our data. Similarly, self-report instruments carry the risk of obtaining socially desirable or imprecise responses. However, this proves controversial given that different variables and measures can impact on how much variance is actually shared Richardson et al. This study did not look at whether the sent sexual content was later forwarded non-consensually or whether said content was forwarded between ex romantic partners.
Future lines of research could address these limitations and expanding on the factors that may explain adolescent sexting involvement. Qualitative studies would be useful for gaining a more detailed understanding of the characteristics associated with each sexting behaviour and gender-related differences. Another necessary step would be to de, implement and evaluate educational school-based programmes aimed at addressing the potential negative consequences of sexting, considering the different sexting behaviours observed and their traits.
Introduction Sexting the sharing of self-produced sexual material through electronic means is one of many behaviours adolescents adopt to express and explore their sexuality. Gay snapchat sext does sexting imply? How prevalent is sexting?
Current study Despite the real concern about preventing the negative consequences of sexting, little research has been published to date in Spain that analyses sexting prevalence by differentiating between the different types of behaviours.Gay snapchat sext
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